Yasaimura 野菜村 – Organic Vegetarian AYCE (khh)

Time to eat some vegetables :).
Time to eat some vegetables :).

In my years of existence on this planet, I’ve had quite my fill of eating at All-You-Can-Eat (AYCE) restaurants, and then, I learned to appreciate more quality for less quantity. Although that’s not to say all AYCE serve mediocre food, some places manage to offer both, the quality and quantity, you just need to shell out the bills for it.

From what I’ve come across in Kaohsiung, AYCE barbecues, hot-pot or at high-end hotels range from 500NT to 900NT. Based on that, can you guess then how much an organic vegetarian AYCE would cost? Continue reading

No Name Lard Sauce Noodles Food Stand 無店名古早味麵攤 – 雄好呷 #029 (khh)

A stand I would surely have never stopped were it not for my foodie guidebook 雄好呷. No bragging signs, not even a name for this street stand who's been around longer than myself.
A  stand I would surely have never stopped were it not for my foodie guidebook 雄好呷. No bragging signs, not even a name for this street stall who’s been in existence for longer than my humble self.

The weather had plunged back into a bipolar state, raining at will, pausing with spots of blue skies, only to relapse even harder. I had spent the previous day hibernating, improvising in my kitchen, surprising myself with a walnut and sweet basil pesto. At last, I found a purpose for this huge bag of walnut gifted on to me a few months ago.

24+ hours in confinement and a gloomy weather was starting to make me go cuckoo, besides, for some days already, I had been building an appetite for some noodles 意麵 at a shop featured in my 雄好呷 book. Hours passed, and as optimist as I was about the rain stopping, it kept pouring. I was no longer inspired to cook at home, ignoring gargles from my stomach, but in the end, the call of hunger prevailed. I seized the first opportune break of rain to get on my bike and pedaled to the noodle shop as fast as I could. Continue reading

下水湯(ha⊦-sui`-t‘ŋ)──(鷄內臟的湯)

TW:

In Taiwanese,「下水湯」means gizzard soup, usually from chicken or some other poultry. Read on for all the nitty gritty details around this expression, and check moedict to listen to the pronunciation.

Originally posted on 台灣話的語源與理據(劉建仁著):

下水湯(ha-sui`-t‘ŋ)──(鷄內臟的湯)

有一個日本友人到了台灣的傳統市場參觀,看到市場旁邊的小吃店牆上掛着的菜單寫着“下水湯”,大感疑惑,“下水”可以煮湯?原來在日語裡,“下水”指的是“污水”。日語“下水(ɡesui)”的意義是“受污染的雨水或從家庭、工廠等流出來的使用過的污濁的水”(《廣辭苑》第六版)。跟“下水”相對的是“上水(zyosui)”。“上水”是“為供應飲料及其他用途而通過渠道或管道輸送的清淨的水。”(《廣辭苑》第六版)。日語“上水”,漢語叫“自來水”。

但是台灣話的“下水(ha-sui`)”指的是宰殺後的鷄、鴨等家禽的內臟(含心、肝、砂囊、腸等),使用“下水(ha-sui`)”煮成的湯就叫“下水湯(ha-sui`-t‘ŋ)”。有時“下水”也指“下水湯”。

漢語共同語也有“下水(ㄒㄧㄚˋ ˙ㄕㄨㄟ)”一詞,但所指的內容跟台灣話的“下水(ha-sui`)”不太一樣。漢語共同語的“下水”指的是“用作食品的牲畜的內臟,有些地區專指肚子(ㄉㄨˇ ˙ㄗ)和腸子。”(《現漢》第六版)。“牲畜”指猪、牛、羊、馬等馴養的獸類,但台灣話的“下水”所指的是鷄、鴨等“家禽”的內臟,對於猪、牛、羊等家畜的內臟並不叫做“下水”。

“下水”一詞因地區不同而所指的內容也不同。例如《維基百科》說:“下水廣義一般指動物內臟,或泛指除去肌肉以外的其他動物器官;狹義指猪腸和猪肺。”《現漢六版》說:“下水:用作食品的牲畜的內臟;有些地區專指肚子(ㄉㄨˇ ˙ㄗ)和腸子。”而在台灣則“下水(ha-sui`)”一詞指鷄、鴨等家禽的內臟。

跟“下水”相對的詞是“上水”。《維基百科》說:“上水為猪腰和猪肝。”《現漢六版》說,“上水(ㄕㄤˋ ˙ㄕㄨㄟ)”是方言,指“用作食品的牲畜的心、肝、肺。”所指內容不同。

牲畜的內臟共同語為什麼叫做“下水(ㄒㄧㄚˋ ˙ㄕㄨㄟ)”?家禽的內臟台灣閩南語為什麼叫做“下水(ha-sui`)”?

先說“下”字及“水”字的音義。

“下”和“水”的音義

《廣韻》對“下”字記錄兩個音:(1)胡雅切(上聲、馬韻),假攝、二等、開口、匣母;字義是“下,賤也,去也,後也,底也,降也。”(2)胡駕切(去聲、禡韻),假攝、二等、開口、匣母;字義是“下,行下。”

比較胡雅切與胡駕切,聲母相同,都是匣母;韻母相同;不同的只是聲調,胡雅切是上聲,胡駕切是去聲,但因聲母匣母是全濁聲母,在閩南語全濁上聲讀陽上聲,全濁去聲讀陽去聲,而因陽上與陽去在閩南語的調值相同,所以“下”字閩南語讀陽去聲 ha。例如:《雅俗通》把“下”字列在嘉韻、下去聲(陽去聲)的喜母、英母、求母下,讀做 hɛ、ɛ、kɛ;《彙音寶鑑》則除了嘉韻、下去聲、喜、英、求母外,又列在膠韻、下去聲、喜母下,分別讀做 he、e、ke、ha,並認為 he 是漳州腔口,ha 是泉州腔口,e 和 ke 是閩省方音(當是指白讀音)。

《甘台字》對“下”字的注音是 haʟ、ha、e、ke 四個音。“下(haʟ)”的意義是:“上的對反;落去;下得,下落,落下。”但是“下”字讀陰去聲的 haʟ,没有韻書的依據。

“下”字是一個多義項的字,《現漢六版》就列出21項之多。《說文•二部》:“下,底也。”指底部。由此引伸指等次或品級低的,如:下等、下級、下策、下品等。宰殺牛、羊、猪等家畜或鷄、鴨等家禽的主要目的是要吃牠們的肉,內臟雖然也可以吃,但那是次要的(有些民族不吃動物內臟),是次級品,也就是下級品。牲畜或家禽的內臟叫做“下水”,這個“下”應該是下級、下等的意思。

“水”字的音是《廣韻》式軌切(上聲、旨韻),止攝、三等、合口、審三母,國語讀ㄕㄨㄟˇ,台語文讀 sui`,白讀 tsui`。

《說文•水部》:“水,準也。北方之行,象衆水並流,中有微陽之氣也。凡水之屬皆从水。”段玉裁引用《釋名》說,“水,準也。”的“準”是“平”的意思。靜止的水的表面是平的,所以說“水,平也。”但這並不是“水”的本義。“水”的本義是河流,因此古時候的河流的名稱很多都叫做“某水”,如:漢水、淮水、泗水、汴水,後來“水”泛指江河湖海,並轉指形成江河湖海主體的一種無色、無味、無臭的液體。“水”又引伸泛指汁液,如:墨水、口水、鐵水、香水、奶水等等。

牲畜或家禽的內臟不是汁液,為什麼叫做“下水”?作者懷疑“下水”的“水”只是借音的字。

牲畜或家禽的內臟為什麼叫做“下水”?從“下”字及“水”字的意義來看,實在看不出什麼所以然來。

“下水”的理據

《現代漢語詞名探源詞典》(王艾錄,2000年)說:“(下水指)腸、肚(ㄉㄨˇ)等動物內臟。”理據是:“(下水)本作‘放水’,猶言居於體下,主放水之臟器。”這種說法有問題。第一,動物主放水的臟器是腎臟、膀胱,不是腸、肚(ㄉㄨˇ)。第二,腸、肚(ㄉㄨˇ)並不在體下(軀幹的下部)。以人體為例,中醫學把軀幹分上焦、中焦、下焦三部分,上焦指從咽喉到胸膈的部分,裡面容納的主要臟器是心、肺;中焦指上腹腔部分,裡面容納脾、胃、小腸等臟器;下焦指下腹腔從胃下口到肛門、膀胱的部分,裡面有肝、腎、膀胱、大腸等臟器。“下水”是指牲畜或家禽的所有內臟,不只是“主放水的臟器”,所以《現代漢語詞名探源詞典》所說的“下水”的理據不通。

網路上《建中生物》說:“「下水」一詞來自於日語的音譯,而日文的發音又是從英文 haslet 音譯而來。haslet 指豬牛羊雞鴨等動物的內臟(美語)或冷盤中的雜碎(英語),因此「下水湯」便是指使用這些動物內臟所煮成的湯。台灣常見的「下水湯」食材,多採用雞的內臟。”

英文 haslet 的意義是:“the edible viscera (as the heart or liver) of a batchered animal (as a hog)”(《Webster’s Third New International Dictionary》)。没有錯,英文 haslet 指的是屠宰過動物的可供食用的內臟,跟漢語的“下水”的意義相同,但是,日語“下水”的讀音是“ɡesui”,跟英文的“haslet”的讀音差很多,日語“下水(ɡesui)”絕不是英語 haslet 的音譯。而且日語“下水(ɡesui)”指的是污水,不是牲畜內臟,因此,日語“下水(ɡesui)”和英語 haslet 是風馬牛不相及的。

漢語“下水”與日語污水意義的“下水”,在詞形上的相同,只是巧合罷了。

“下脚”和“下水”

《漢典》(網路)在“下脚”條下說:“方言。蘇、滬一帶稱屠宰後的猪的內臟、脚爪叫‘下脚’。”《蘇州方言詞典》也說,“下脚”就是“下水”,指“豬牛羊內臟的通稱”。由此可知牲畜內臟意義的“下水”,吳方言說“下脚”,但“下脚”在漢語共同語又有不同的意義。

《漢大詞》的“下脚”有四個義項,其中第2個是“原材料加工後的餘料”,第3個是“屠宰後牲畜的內臟、脚爪叫下脚”,這就是吳方言的“下脚”。而《現漢六版》則說,“下脚”即指“下脚料”;而“下脚料”是“原材料加工、利用後剩下的碎料”。

《漢大詞》所說的“下脚”的兩個義項有共同的地方。首先,工業上的下脚(下脚料)和牲畜內臟的下脚都是指剩餘的東西。屠宰牲畜的主要目的是吃牠的肉,內臟可以說不是屠宰牲畜的主要目的,而是屠宰後剩餘的東西,甚至有些民族不吃動物的內臟。其次工業上的下脚和牲畜內臟的下脚是有價值的,我們可以在報紙上常常看到事業單位的標售下脚料的公告;在市場也不難看到猪肝、猪腰子、牛肚等在出售,民間還認為動物內臟是補品,有吃肝補肝,吃腎(腰子)補腎,吃腦補腦的說法。

“脚”字的義項很多,其中一項是沉澱物、殘渣、剩尾。例如:宋•張世南《遊宦紀聞》:“若作元子藥,……頃刻如泥,更無滓脚。”“滓脚”指沉澱物。《儒林外史》第十回:“把盤向地下一掀,要倒那盤子裡的湯脚。”“湯脚”就是湯裡面的殘渣或剩餘的東西了。又如:宋•陸游《秋夜歌》:“架上故裘破見肘,床頭殘酒傾到脚。”“傾到脚”是倒酒倒到只剩下殘渣的意思了。

還有“泔脚”、“邊脚”等的“脚”也是指殘渣、剩餘物料。“泔脚(ㄍㄢ ㄐㄧㄠˇ)”是“方言。倒掉的剩飯、剩菜和刷過鍋碗的水。”(《漢大詞》)。“泔脚”就是台灣話的“p‘un(潘)”了。

“邊脚”又作“邊角料”,指“製作物品時,切割、裁剪下來的零碎材料。”(《現漢六版》)。“邊角料”的意義和“下脚料”相同。

“下”有次等、次級的意義,“下脚料”的理據也許是“次等的剩餘物料”。

“下水”與“雜碎”

《維基百科》“下水”條說:“有時「下水」也被稱為「雜碎」。”“雜碎(ㄗㄚˊ ˙ㄙㄨㄟ)”(碎讀輕聲)是“煮熟切碎供食用的牛羊等內臟”。例如:牛雜碎、羊雜碎。“雜碎”的“雜”指供食用的盤中的內臟不只一種,有好幾種內臟混雜在一起。例如:“牛雜碎”可能包含牛肚、牛腸、牛肝、牛腎等幾種材料。“雜碎”的“碎”指這些上桌的牛羊內臟已經切成一小塊一小塊,以方便食用。

“雜碎”普通話讀ㄗㄚˊ ˙ㄙㄨㄟ。“碎(ㄙㄨㄟˋ)”和“下水(ㄒㄧㄚˋ ˙ㄕㄨㄟ)”的“水(ㄕㄨㄟˇ)”比較,韻母相同,聲母ㄙ和ㄕ的發音部位很靠近;聲調前者是去聲,後者是上聲。中古的去聲字在現代漢語讀上聲也是有的,如統、僅。牲畜內臟意義的“下水”和“雜碎”的“碎”有沒有關聯?

“雜碎”台灣話讀做 tsap-suiʟ,這個“碎(suiʟ)”和“下水(ha-sui`)”的“水(sui`)”,聲母、韻母相同,不同的地方只是聲調,碎(suiʟ)是陰去聲,水(sui`)是陰上聲。

“碎”字《廣韻》記錄的音是“蘇內切”,去聲、隊韻,蟹攝、一等、合口、心母,普通話讀ㄙㄨㄟˋ,台語文讀 suiʟ,白讀…

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Book Review: The Cultural Revolution Cookbook

A sample page, courtesy of The Cultural Revolution Cookbook.
A sample page, courtesy of The Cultural Revolution Cookbook.
Each recipe features a picture and the name of the dish in Chinese on the left page, and the right page provides the recipes with notes from the author and an illustrated historical anecdote.

I don’t remember how I came across The Cultural Revolution Cookbook, but  the idea of pairing food with a little bit of uncensored Chinese communist history fascinated me. The main inspiration and author of the book, Sasha Gong, lived through Cultural Revolution period herself, and instead of commiserating on her fate, she made the most out of it. Through this cookbook, in partnership with Scott Seligman, we get a glimpse of what life at the dinner table was like during the cultural revolution, a part of history somewhat very blurry for me. Continue reading

How to help with Kaohsiung’s explosion disaster 「81氣爆」

81_ProtectKaohsiung_Super720
For detailed views of the scenes of disaster, click on the picture. (photo courtesy of super720.com)

Without going into a detailed coverage of the recent explosion disaster which physically and emotionally rocked the city of Kaohsiung, I thought I’d make a quick post in case some foreigners are wondering how to help out.

Ways to donate money to help with the Kaohsiung explosion disaster.

At the moment, financial donations are mainly sought for. This can be done by wiring money directly to the City of Kaohsiung, or more conveniently at any Family Mart or 7-11.

At those two convenient stores, get the attention of a sales clerk, tell him/her your desire to make a donation, in most cases he/she will gladly walk you through the process of filling out the donation form to get the donation receipt printed, you’ll hand in the money, and voilà! You’ll have done your good deed of the day, something I’m sure the Gods of Taiwan will remember at your benefit, in the future ;).

Family Mart is keeping tab of the donation daily,
Donation board updated daily, on the Family Mart website.

In addition of donations from the general population, many companies have given money as well, Kaohsiung city is keeping up a tab of all the donors, available on this page.

Since the first day of the tragedy, Kaohsiung’s mayor Chen Chu 陳菊 has been announcing help initiatives, here’s a non-exhaustive list:

Although the city of Kaohsiung released some funds since day one, the degree of human and physical damages is so overwhelming, that I can only assume the money donations come in to complement the funding for the initiatives listed above. Overall, I think we can rest assured that the donated money is and will be adequately spent.

天佑高雄!

(last updated: 2014/08/09 六)